Pests are known to exist on this planet from pre historic periods and are described as “Organisms that demerits the value of resources in which man is interested” controlling these pests by all available means has been the priority of the mankind. The prevailing climatic condition with 3000 mm annual rainfall and 85 – 90% relative humidity encourages rapid multiplication of pests and diseases in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The adoption of modern technology, comprising of introduction of high yielding varieties, use of chemical fertilizers and improved agronomic practices during late sixties and seventies has enable the farmers in increasing the crop production two to three folds, but such intensive cropping system have also paved the way for emergence of pests, diseases and weed problems, necessitating the unilateral use of pesticides. The indiscriminate use of pesticides has resulted into several risk factors such as health hazards, ecological imbalance, and resistance in pests to pesticides, resurgence of pests and environmental pollution. Besides the destruction of natural enemies of pests increased level of pesticides residues in soil, water, food and fodder crops have also been noticed above the prescribed limit of tolerance.

          Though the usage of pesticides is still a dominating tool to combat pests, it is conceded that the use of pesticides alone is not a satisfactory solution to the pest problem. Restrictions on indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides are necessarily to be imposed by adopting and popularizing, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. IPM is defined as “A Pest Management that in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of pest species, utilises all suitable techniques and methods in a compatible  manner as possible and maintains pest population at levels below those causing economically unacceptable damage or lose. IPM is not new to our farmers’ community. Summer and post harvest ploughing has been in practice with the farmers to expose soil insects and pupae. Growing of marigold plants in commercial crops like chillies and vegetable have been practiced by many farmers. Use of Neem twigs while storing grains also practiced by our forefathers. Picking up and destroying grown caterpillars was not known to them. IPM is always considered to be economical, effective, practical and protective. It attempts to ensure biological balance in the nature. Besides increasing the cost-benefit ratio by minimizing expenditure on pesticides and their application. The major tools for the development and practice of IPM strategy are pests surveillance, mechanical and physical methods, cultural methods, biological methods, regulatory methods and chemical methods. 

Biological control is one of the major component of IPM. In nature many organisms are surviving by feeding on other insects. Predators, parasites and diseases of pests are available in abundance, which have been identified to maintain natural balance and reduced pest incidence. Use of these naturally occurring living organisms to check pest population is one of the safest methods of   pest management. 

          IPM practices are been adopted in Andaman and Nicobar Islands since 1994 by the State Agriculture Department in collaboration of the Central Integrated Pest Management Center, Port Blair. The Ministry of Agriculture, GOI felt necessary to popularize biological control method and in this context a scheme was formulated for setting up a Bio- Control Laboratory in State with 100% grant-in-aid subsidy. Rs.50 lakhs was provided for each lab and Andaman and Nicobar Islands was also allotted the same amount for construction of one Bio lab and purchasing of equipment and vehicle. Thus a State Biocontrol Laboratory started functioning at Haddo, Port Blair since July’2000 after formal inauguration by the Hon’ble Lieutenant Governor on 21 st July’2000 with the following objectives: 

1.          Standardization of technology for protection of different crops against pests.

2.          Standardization of methods of mass production of predators, parasitoids & pathogens.

3.          Utilization and evaluation of predators, parasitoids and pathogens in different agro-ecosystem.

4.          Training to the trainers & farmers in identification, production, utilization and evaluation of bio-control   


5.          Conservation and augmentation of natural enemies already present in the farmer’s fields.

6.          Multiplication of bio-agents in the laboratory and subsequent release in the farmer’s fields against their  

             target pests.

7.          Monitoring and surveillance of insect-pest, disease, weeds and bio-agents situation on major crops.







I. Egg Parasitoids

1. Tetrastichus schoenobii

2. Telenomus rowani

3. Gonatocerus spp.

4. Anagrus optabilis

5. Trichogramma spp.


II. Larval parasitoids


1. Itoplectis narange

2. Trichomma enaphalocrosis

3. Charops brachypterum

4. Temelucha phillippinensis

5. Macrocentrus phillippinensis

6. Stenobracon niceville

7. Cotesia (Apanteles flavipes)

8. Opius sp.

9. Brachymeria spp.

10. Goniozus spp.

11. Dryinid wasps

12. Pipunculids

1. Lady bird beetles

2. Ground beetles

3. Predatory crickets

4. Predatory grasshopper

5. Predatory mired bugs

6. Predatory water bugs

7. Damsel flies

8. Ear wig

9. Spiders

1. Metarhizium fungi

2. Beauveria bassiana

3. Hirsutella citri formis

4. Nomuraea

5. NPV








1. Baculovirus


Rhinoceros BeetleS


2. Cryptolemus

Mealy bugs

Citrus, Guava,

Custard Apple, Brinjal

3. Chrysopa


Pulses, Oil seeds, Vegetables

White fly



Oil seeds

4. Trichogramma


Oil Seeds, Vegetables, Pulses



Borers and Leaf Folder






5. Trichoderma

Wilt and Damping off

Pulses, Oil seeds, Vegetables, Citrus.

6. Metarhizium anisopliea

Rhinoceros Beetles


White grubs


7. Bacillus popilliae

White grubs

Ground nut

8. NPV



Pulses, Vegetables,

 Oil Seeds.


Oil Seeds, Vegetables

  Biocontrol Products used against Rice Pests & Diseases


Biocontrol Products

Pests /Diseases



Trichogramma japonicum


Lepidopteran Pest

Particularly Yellow Stem Borer

@ 50,000/ha  30 & 37 DAT


Trichogramma chilonis


Lepidopteran Pest

particularly Leaf folder

@ 50,000/ha 37, 44 & 51 DAT


Pheromone Trap with lure

of Scirpophaga incertulus

Yellow Stem Borer


8-10 trap/ ha for mass trap &

 4-5 trap/ha for monitoring


Pseudomonas fluoroscenes





@10gm/kg of seed & soak in 1litre of water overnight. Decant the excess water and allow to sprout the seeds for 24 hrs & then sow the seeds.


Pseudomonas fluoroscenes






Sheath Blight





Seed soaking @10gm/kg,

Root dipping @1.5kg/ha.

Soil application at 30 DAT @2.5 kg/ha.

Foliar spray at boot leaf and 10 days   later @1kg/ha


Beauveria bassiana


Leaf hopper, Plant Hopper, Stem Borer, Rice Bug

Spray @ 2 ml/lit of spray solution.




Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

Cutworm, Army worm


Spray @ 250 LE /Ha, 3 spray at weekly interval on noticing eggs and first instar larvae.



1.Cut the infected grub into small pieces.

2.Add to it 50 ml of pure water and 10 gms. Sugar in a  pistle motor and grind it to homogenous solution. Sugar 

   is added to increase the palatability of the beetles.

3.Add another 50 ml of pure water to make the volume up to 100 ml.

4.Shift the homogenous contents to a shallow container and add freshly collected Rhinoceros beetles in it.

5.Allow the beetles to remain in it for ˝ an hour.

6.Transfer the treated beetles in plastic jar containing autoclaved sawdust. Also transfer the remaining culture in 


7.Release the beetles in the field during evening hours.  

Use of Pheromones in Pest Control 

            Pheromones are lures, which female insects of different species produce in nature, a characteristic organic compound, which attracts male species of insects for mating, also known as “sex-pheromones or sex-lures”. 

How they are used?

               Pheromone traps are an important device in early pest warning system to detect presence of insects in fields and give an indication to initiating pest control measures with appropriate insecticides or biological control agents at the right time. When pheromone lure is placed in dispenser and kept in the trap, pheromone from dispenser gradually evaporates and spreads in air by diffusion process. Male species of insects receives the smell of pheromones and get attracted to the lures, which serve as female decoys, and male insects eventually get trapped. Insecticides with knock down and fumigation effect, such as dichlorvos, is used to kill trapped males, which might have otherwise mated with females to produce innumerable eggs. Once moth enters the trap, it will not be able to come out. 

            Helicoverpa lure and Spodoptera lure against Borers in vegetables.

            Earias vittella lure against Earias sps. in Bhindi. 

            Funnel Trap: Each trap consists of two detachable parts


A.A funnel shaped “Trap-Base” fitted with a polythene sleeve and provided with two “arms and Handle”.

B.A circular plate or “cap” provided with three “slots” on the under side. 

   Fix the cap to trap base by pressing two side slots into Arms.

   Insert pheromone lures into middle slot.

   The trap can be tied to stick with the help of  “Handle”.

   Close the polythene sleeve with a thread 2-3 inches from loose-end and tied to the stick.

   Fix the trap in the field 2 ft. high from the crop canopy. 


For monitoring insect population level

2-5 traps per hectare

For mass trapping

8-10 traps per hectare

 Change the lure after 15-20 days

Trap can be reused. 

*Storing: Cool and dry place or in refrigerator (not in deep freezer) 


  NPV is a specific disease. A virulent pathogen of insects, is characterized by pertinacious polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) inside which are embedded virus rods known as virions. These are made up of DNA & belong to Baculovirus group. The virus has to be ingested by insect & enter the gut to produce viral infection. With the action of alkaline juice & proleolytic enzymes in the gut, polyhedral wall & coat gets loosened & dissolved liberating virions. These virions pass through mudget walls, enter haemocoel & infect nuclei of the cells in different tissues of body, tracheal matrix, haemocytes, sarcolemma of muscles, neurolemma & never cells of ganglion & brain, hypodermus & gonads.

            It is safe to honeybees, fish, mammals & natural enemies of insects & can be stored in cool place or under refrigeration for longer life.

Pest & Crops:

            NPV of Helicoverpa armigera & Spodoptera litura on Cotton, Tobacco, Pulses, Oilseed crops, Vegetables etc.

Field Application:    

Spray NPV @ 250-500 LE (Larval Equivalent) per hectare mixed in required quantity of water.
Application must be done on noticing eggs on plants.
Adjuvant like jaggerry solution 0.5%, Groundnut cake 1% etc. and 0.1% of any spreader/sticker or detergent powder should be added to NPV solution. 


In 3-7 days after ingestion


SIntegumentel members gets swollen.
Larvae become impatient in movement.
 Skin becomes fragile.powder should be added to NPV solution. 
Haemolymph becomes milky and flows out.
Dead larvae are pale, flaccid and hang down with head facing the ground.

 The oozing fluid from its body contaminates nearby foliage and the disease cycle continues. 

*Storage: Dry cool place.